Census operation in Southern Bhutan only.  To prove their status Southern Bhutanese are required to produce a land tax receipt specifically from the year of 1958.  People previously recognised as Bhutanese re-classified as 'illegal immigrants'.  Several thousand are forced to leave the country.


Public unease abounds about the conduct of the census and repressive measures in the south.  Under the policy of 'One Nation, One People', Southern Bhutanese are required to wear the northern traditional dress in public and adopt their customs.  The Nepali language is removed from the school curriculum.  The Hindu Sanskrit schools are closed.

Tek Nath Rizal, a Royal Advisory Counsellor, leads a petition to the King to express his concerns and is imprisioned.


Public demonstrations are held across Southern Bhutan and demands for civil and cultural rights for Southern Bhutanese are presented to district authorities.  All who participated are branded 'anti-nationals' by the government.  This is followed by widespread ill-treatment, including rape, and hundreds of arbitrary arrests and detentions without trials, with over 2000 people tortured, according to Amnesty International.

Read some personal testimonies.